The word quinceañera also refers to the girl who is turning 15.
A quinceañera is much more than a birthday party. It is a centuries-old tradition that fuses Catholic and indigenous elements.
Let’s take a brief look into the roots of this beloved tradition!
Like many other Hispanic traditions, it is said that the quinceañera originated in Mesoamerican populations. The Aztec civilization was a Mesoamerican culture that celebrated coming of age with elaborate ceremonies. Although these rites of passage were very different in the 13th century, many elements of Aztec heritage live on in the celebration of the quinceañera.
The Spanish Conquistadors
To completely understand the roots of the quinceañera, we must remember that the Spanish conquistadors took over Mesoamerica in the 16th century. They introduced Catholicism as well as their own customs and traditions, such as introducing a young, pure woman of marriageable age to the community. The most obvious link between the quinceañera and Catholicism is the mass held before the celebration. Other elements, such as horse-drawn carriages and elaborate dresses, show the tradition’s European influences.
Depending on the family, a girl’s quinceañera lies somewhere on the spectrum between a traditional rite of passage and a lavish ball. Every quinceañera is a little different, but traditional celebrations generally share the following elements:
- A Catholic mass is held before the celebration.
- The quinceañera makes a grand entrance into her fiesta (party).
- Throughout the evening, the quinceañera is accompanied by her entourage, consisting of her damas(ladies) and their escorts.
- A formal toast is given.
- The quinceañera and her father participate in a father-daughter dance, generally a waltz.
The quinceañera tradition is celebrated throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, although it remains strongest in Mexico. Traditions vary between countries; for example, in many Spanish-speaking countries there is a candle-lighting ceremony.
As you can see, the quinceañera is very similar to a wedding. When the guests enter the reception, the gifts are placed on a table adorned with a tiered cake. However, many gifts the quinceañera receives are strikingly unique.
- The quinceañera receives the last doll she’ll ever receive during the ceremonia de la última muñeca(ceremony of the last doll).
- During the ceremonia de cambio de zapatos(changing of shoes ceremony), the quinceañera gives up her flats for a new pair of high heels.
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